A President’s farewell: World leaders gather in Paris to pay final respects to Jacques Chirac

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Jacques Chirac’s daughter stood alone by her father’s grave today as she said her last goodbye to the former French President.

Claude Chirac bowed her head towards the tombstone at the Paris cemetery where France‘s former head of state was laid to rest today. 

The private mourning at Montparnasse followed a very public farewell in the centre of Paris where a solemn Emmanuel Macron led a military salute before world leaders past and present gathered for a funeral service.   

Draped in a French flag, Chirac’s coffin was placed near the site of Napoleon’s tomb before it was driven for a memorial service at Saint-Sulpice church – chosen because the fire-ravaged Notre Dame is unavailable. 

Vladimir Putin, Bill Clinton and Nicolas Sarkozy were among the mourners along with celebrities including Carla Bruni and Salma Hayek.  

On a national day of mourning, a minute of silence was held in schools and public buildings across France to remember Chirac, who served as President from 1995 to 2007 and died last Thursday at the age of 86.  

Claude Chirac, at the back, bows her head towards her father's tombstone at the Montparnasse cemetery in Paris today as she says her last goodbye to former President Jacques Chirac

Claude Chirac, at the back, bows her head towards her father's tombstone at the Montparnasse cemetery in Paris today as she says her last goodbye to former President Jacques Chirac

Claude Chirac, at the back, bows her head towards her father’s tombstone at the Montparnasse cemetery in Paris today as she says her last goodbye to former President Jacques Chirac 

Draped in a French flag, Chirac's coffin is brought to its final resting place at Montparnasse as Claude Chirac puts her hand on the casket ahead of the final burial

Draped in a French flag, Chirac's coffin is brought to its final resting place at Montparnasse as Claude Chirac puts her hand on the casket ahead of the final burial

Draped in a French flag, Chirac’s coffin is brought to its final resting place at Montparnasse as Claude Chirac puts her hand on the casket ahead of the final burial 

French President Emmanuel Macron bows his head over the coffin of former leader Jacques Chirac during a military tribute in Paris today, as France pays its last respects to its former leader

French President Emmanuel Macron bows his head over the coffin of former leader Jacques Chirac during a military tribute in Paris today, as France pays its last respects to its former leader

French President Emmanuel Macron bows his head over the coffin of former leader Jacques Chirac during a military tribute in Paris today, as France pays its last respects to its former leader 

Inside the Saint-Sulpice church in Paris, President Macron speaks to Chirac's daughter Claude Chirac (second left) while her husband Frederic Salat-Baroux (second right) and son Martin Rey-Chirac (right) look on

Inside the Saint-Sulpice church in Paris, President Macron speaks to Chirac's daughter Claude Chirac (second left) while her husband Frederic Salat-Baroux (second right) and son Martin Rey-Chirac (right) look on

Inside the Saint-Sulpice church in Paris, President Macron speaks to Chirac’s daughter Claude Chirac (second left) while her husband Frederic Salat-Baroux (second right) and son Martin Rey-Chirac (right) look on 

Brigitte Macron, the wife of current French leader Emmanuel Macron, arrives for the memorial service in Paris this morning

Brigitte Macron, the wife of current French leader Emmanuel Macron, arrives for the memorial service in Paris this morning

Brigitte Macron, the wife of current French leader Emmanuel Macron, arrives for the memorial service in Paris this morning

Former French President Nicolas Sarkozy and his wife Carla Bruni arrive to attend the funeral of President Chirac

Former French President Nicolas Sarkozy and his wife Carla Bruni arrive to attend the funeral of President Chirac

Former French President Nicolas Sarkozy and his wife Carla Bruni arrive to attend the funeral of President Chirac

Former French President Nicolas Sarkozy and his wife Carla Bruni arrive to attend the funeral of President Chirac

Nicolas Sarkozy, Chirac’s former ally-turned-rival who eventually succeeded him as French President in 2007, arrives at the funeral today with his former supermodel wife Carla Bruni  

Chirac's daughter Claude (right), 56, and her son Martin Rey-Chirac, 23, hold hands as they leave the service on Monday

Chirac's daughter Claude (right), 56, and her son Martin Rey-Chirac, 23, hold hands as they leave the service on Monday

Chirac’s daughter Claude (right), 56, and her son Martin Rey-Chirac, 23, hold hands as they leave the service on Monday

A sombre Macron, who spoke warmly of Chirac in a televised address on Thursday, walks away from the former President's Tricolore-draped coffin during a military ceremony near the site of Napoleon's tomb today

A sombre Macron, who spoke warmly of Chirac in a televised address on Thursday, walks away from the former President's Tricolore-draped coffin during a military ceremony near the site of Napoleon's tomb today

A sombre Macron, who spoke warmly of Chirac in a televised address on Thursday, walks away from the former President’s Tricolore-draped coffin during a military ceremony near the site of Napoleon’s tomb today 

Russian leader Vladimir Putin, who took over as President in 2000 and overlapped with Chirac for most of his time as French President, stands in the Saint-Sulpice church during the service today

Russian leader Vladimir Putin, who took over as President in 2000 and overlapped with Chirac for most of his time as French President, stands in the Saint-Sulpice church during the service today

Russian leader Vladimir Putin, who took over as President in 2000 and overlapped with Chirac for most of his time as French President, stands in the Saint-Sulpice church during the service today

French businessman Francois-Henri Punault and wife, actress Salma Hayek arrive to attend the funeral during a national day of mourning in Paris

French businessman Francois-Henri Punault and wife, actress Salma Hayek arrive to attend the funeral during a national day of mourning in Paris

Former U.S. President Bill Clinton who overlapped in office with Chirac from 1995 to 2001

Former U.S. President Bill Clinton who overlapped in office with Chirac from 1995 to 2001

The high-profile guests included actress Salma Hayek (left with her French businessman Francois-Henri Punault) and former U.S. President Bill Clinton (right) who overlapped in office with Chirac from 1995 to 2001

Chirac's daughter Claude Chirac (centre), her husband Frederic Salat-Baroux (right), her son Martin Rey-Chirac (second left) and other relatives arrive at the memorial service at Saint-Sulpice in Paris today

Chirac's daughter Claude Chirac (centre), her husband Frederic Salat-Baroux (right), her son Martin Rey-Chirac (second left) and other relatives arrive at the memorial service at Saint-Sulpice in Paris today

Chirac’s daughter Claude Chirac (centre), her husband Frederic Salat-Baroux (right), her son Martin Rey-Chirac (second left) and other relatives arrive at the memorial service at Saint-Sulpice in Paris today

The Tricolore-draped coffin is carried into the church in Paris today for a memorial service after the earlier military tribute

The Tricolore-draped coffin is carried into the church in Paris today for a memorial service after the earlier military tribute

The Tricolore-draped coffin is carried into the church in Paris today for a memorial service after the earlier military tribute

France falls silent: People hold a minute's silence to honour Chirac outside the National Assembly building in Paris today

France falls silent: People hold a minute's silence to honour Chirac outside the National Assembly building in Paris today

France falls silent: People hold a minute’s silence to honour Chirac outside the National Assembly building in Paris today

Jacques Chirac (pictured in 2002) served as President from 1995 to 2007 and died last Thursday at the age of 86

Jacques Chirac (pictured in 2002) served as President from 1995 to 2007 and died last Thursday at the age of 86

Jacques Chirac (pictured in 2002) served as President from 1995 to 2007 and died last Thursday at the age of 86

In the first of several acts of mourning today, Macron stood solemnly over the casket during a military salute at Les Invalides in Paris. 

Macron, who spoke warmly of Chirac in a televised address on Thursday, inspected the troops while a military band played La Marseillaise and watched as Chirac’s coffin was placed in the courtyard. 

Then, the coffin was driven through Paris to the main memorial service at the Saint-Sulpice church, where Macron’s wife Brigitte was also among the mourners.  

Guests at the church, who also included Britain’s Prince Edward, watched Chirac’s former bodyguards bring the coffin inside while onlookers applauded outside.   

Macron later hosted the visiting world leaders for a lunch at the Elysee Palace while the coffin was taken to Montparnasse for the final, private burial. 

The last three French Presidents to die – Charles de Gaulle in 1970, Georges Pompidou in 1974 and Francois Mitterrand in 1996 – were honoured with services at Notre Dame cathedral. 

But the Paris landmark was ravaged by fire in April this year and will need years of repairs, so is not available for Chirac’s memorial.   

Chirac’s widow Bernadette, who is said to be in frail health, attended a private service earlier but was not present at the main ceremony. 

Bernadette stood by Jacques Chirac throughout their 63-year-marriage despite his reputation for womanising and philandering.  

Macron stands over the flag-draped coffin at Les Invalides this morning as France pays its final respects to Jacques Chirac

Macron stands over the flag-draped coffin at Les Invalides this morning as France pays its final respects to Jacques Chirac

Macron stands over the flag-draped coffin at Les Invalides this morning as France pays its final respects to Jacques Chirac

Actress Salma Hayek and husband Francois-Henri Pinault hold hands as they leave the funeral service in Paris on Monday

Actress Salma Hayek and husband Francois-Henri Pinault hold hands as they leave the funeral service in Paris on Monday

Actress Salma Hayek and husband Francois-Henri Pinault hold hands as they leave the funeral service in Paris on Monday

Emmanuel Macron shakes hands with Bill Clinton while Brigitte Macron looks on during a lunch for world leaders at the presidential Elysee Palace in the centre of Paris

Emmanuel Macron shakes hands with Bill Clinton while Brigitte Macron looks on during a lunch for world leaders at the presidential Elysee Palace in the centre of Paris

Emmanuel Macron shakes hands with Bill Clinton while Brigitte Macron looks on during a lunch for world leaders at the presidential Elysee Palace in the centre of Paris

Back at his former stomping ground: Former French leader Nicolas Sarkozy at the Elysee Palace during the Chirac farewell

Back at his former stomping ground: Former French leader Nicolas Sarkozy at the Elysee Palace during the Chirac farewell

Back at his former stomping ground: Former French leader Nicolas Sarkozy at the Elysee Palace during the Chirac farewell

The French President and first lady (left) and Chirac's family (right) watch the former President's coffin arriving in the church

The French President and first lady (left) and Chirac's family (right) watch the former President's coffin arriving in the church

The French President and first lady (left) and Chirac’s family (right) watch the former President’s coffin arriving in the church

Emmanuel Macron speaks to Claude Chirac while the current President's wife Brigitte, 66, looks on behind her husband

Emmanuel Macron speaks to Claude Chirac while the current President's wife Brigitte, 66, looks on behind her husband

Emmanuel Macron speaks to Claude Chirac while the current President’s wife Brigitte, 66, looks on behind her husband

Nicolas Sarkozy and his wife Carla Bruni are greeted by Macron's current Prime Minister Edouard Philippe outside the church

Nicolas Sarkozy and his wife Carla Bruni are greeted by Macron's current Prime Minister Edouard Philippe outside the church

Nicolas Sarkozy and his wife Carla Bruni are greeted by Macron’s current Prime Minister Edouard Philippe outside the church

Former French leader Francois Hollande

Former French leader Francois Hollande

Brigitte and Emmanuel Macron in the church today

Brigitte and Emmanuel Macron in the church today

Chirac’s successor-but-two Francois Hollande (left) – whom Chirac reportedly said he would vote for in the 2012 election – arrives at the church, where Brigitte and Emmanuel Macron (right) are seen inside during the service 

Afghanistan's former President Hamid Karzai, senior EU figure Guy Verhofstadt, Britain's Prince Edward, and Luxembourg's Grand Duc Henri and his wife Maria Teresa Mestre arrive at the church today

Afghanistan's former President Hamid Karzai, senior EU figure Guy Verhofstadt, Britain's Prince Edward, and Luxembourg's Grand Duc Henri and his wife Maria Teresa Mestre arrive at the church today

Afghanistan’s former President Hamid Karzai, senior EU figure Guy Verhofstadt, Britain’s Prince Edward, and Luxembourg’s Grand Duc Henri and his wife Maria Teresa Mestre arrive at the church today

Brigitte and Emmanuel Macron are welcomed to the Saint-Sulpice church in Paris. Previous Presidents have been honoured at Notre Dame cathedral but it is unavailable this year after April's disastrous fire

Brigitte and Emmanuel Macron are welcomed to the Saint-Sulpice church in Paris. Previous Presidents have been honoured at Notre Dame cathedral but it is unavailable this year after April's disastrous fire

Brigitte and Emmanuel Macron are welcomed to the Saint-Sulpice church in Paris. Previous Presidents have been honoured at Notre Dame cathedral but it is unavailable this year after April’s disastrous fire 

Carla Bruni , who became the French first lady when she married Nicolas Sarkozy in 2008

Carla Bruni , who became the French first lady when she married Nicolas Sarkozy in 2008

Brigitte Macron gets out of a car in Paris today

Brigitte Macron gets out of a car in Paris today

Carla Bruni (left), who became the French first lady when she married Nicolas Sarkozy in 2008, and current first lady Brigitte Macron (right), attend the memorial service in Paris today

French police on motorcycles escort Chirac's funeral procession as it leaves Les Invalides (in the background), a monument which contains Napoleon's tomb, on its way to a memorial service at the Saint-Sulpice church

French police on motorcycles escort Chirac's funeral procession as it leaves Les Invalides (in the background), a monument which contains Napoleon's tomb, on its way to a memorial service at the Saint-Sulpice church

French police on motorcycles escort Chirac’s funeral procession as it leaves Les Invalides (in the background), a monument which contains Napoleon’s tomb, on its way to a memorial service at the Saint-Sulpice church 

Former U.S. President Bill Clinton waves as he arrives at the church to honour Chirac, who was his counterpart for six years

Former U.S. President Bill Clinton waves as he arrives at the church to honour Chirac, who was his counterpart for six years

Former U.S. President Bill Clinton waves as he arrives at the church to honour Chirac, who was his counterpart for six years

French President Emmanuel Macron stands in front of the flag-draped coffin of late French President Jacques Chirac during a military funeral honors ceremony at the Invalides monument

French President Emmanuel Macron stands in front of the flag-draped coffin of late French President Jacques Chirac during a military funeral honors ceremony at the Invalides monument

French President Emmanuel Macron stands in front of the flag-draped coffin of late French President Jacques Chirac during a military funeral honors ceremony at the Invalides monument

French Republican guards carry the flag-draped coffin of late French President Jacques Chirac during a military ceremony at Invalides

French Republican guards carry the flag-draped coffin of late French President Jacques Chirac during a military ceremony at Invalides

French Republican guards carry the flag-draped coffin of late French President Jacques Chirac during a military ceremony at Invalides 

‘This former president … had a true love for people, equally at home in the salons of the Elysee or the living room of a farmer,’ Archbishop of Paris Michel Aupetit told the roughly 2,000 people gathered in the church.

He said Chirac embodied a love for his fellow man that is missing from today’s society. ‘Goodbye, and thank you Monsieur Chirac,’ Aupetit added.  

Chirac’s immediate successors, Nicolas Sarkozy and Francois Hollande, were both present, as, in a rare public appearance, was former President Valery Giscard d’Estaing, who is 93. 

Former supermodel Carla Bruni joined her husband Sarkozy at the ceremony, while Hollywood actress Salma Hayek – who invited Chirac to her 2009 wedding – was also there. 

Far-right leader Marine Le Pen pulled out after the Chirac family opposed her presence. 

Chirac won a second term in 2002 after Le Pen’s father, Jean-Marie Le Pen, shocked France by reaching the second round, prompting a landslide for Chirac.  

Other world leaders attending included Russia’s Vladimir Putin, Qatari Emir Sheikh Tamim bin Hamad Al-Thani as well as European Commission chief Jean-Claude Juncker.

Putin worked with Chirac in his own first spell as President and the pair were notably united in their opposition to the invasion of Iraq.   

Jacques Chirac's grandson Martin Rey-Chirac, daughter Claude Chirac and son-in-law Frederic Salat-Baroux leave the church after Monday's memorial service

Jacques Chirac's grandson Martin Rey-Chirac, daughter Claude Chirac and son-in-law Frederic Salat-Baroux leave the church after Monday's memorial service

Jacques Chirac’s grandson Martin Rey-Chirac, daughter Claude Chirac and son-in-law Frederic Salat-Baroux leave the church after Monday’s memorial service 

French clergymen escort the coffin of late President Jacques Chirac as it is carried out of the Saint-Sulpice church

French clergymen escort the coffin of late President Jacques Chirac as it is carried out of the Saint-Sulpice church

French clergymen escort the coffin of late President Jacques Chirac as it is carried out of the Saint-Sulpice church

Three former Presidents: Francois Hollande (left), Nicolas Sarkozy (centre, with his wife Carla Bruni second left), and Valery Giscard d'Estaing (right), with his wife Anne-Aymone leaning down, attend the funeral today

Three former Presidents: Francois Hollande (left), Nicolas Sarkozy (centre, with his wife Carla Bruni second left), and Valery Giscard d'Estaing (right), with his wife Anne-Aymone leaning down, attend the funeral today

Three former Presidents: Francois Hollande (left), Nicolas Sarkozy (centre, with his wife Carla Bruni second left), and Valery Giscard d’Estaing (right), with his wife Anne-Aymone leaning down, attend the funeral today

Russian President Vladimir Putin, who was in office with Chirac in the early 2000s, inside the church in Paris this morning

Russian President Vladimir Putin, who was in office with Chirac in the early 2000s, inside the church in Paris this morning

Russian President Vladimir Putin, who was in office with Chirac in the early 2000s, inside the church in Paris this morning

Pall-bearers carry Chirac's coffin from the Les Invalides monument in Paris this morning where world leaders past and present are gathering to pay their respects to the long-serving French politician

Pall-bearers carry Chirac's coffin from the Les Invalides monument in Paris this morning where world leaders past and present are gathering to pay their respects to the long-serving French politician

Pall-bearers carry Chirac’s coffin from the Les Invalides monument in Paris this morning where world leaders past and present are gathering to pay their respects to the long-serving French politician 

The view down the aisle at Chirac's memorial service today with his Tricolore-draped coffin near the altar at Saint-Sulpice

The view down the aisle at Chirac's memorial service today with his Tricolore-draped coffin near the altar at Saint-Sulpice

The view down the aisle at Chirac’s memorial service today with his Tricolore-draped coffin near the altar at Saint-Sulpice 

People gather outside the church where the memorial service was being held, one of them holding a portrait of Chirac

People gather outside the church where the memorial service was being held, one of them holding a portrait of Chirac

People gather outside the church where the memorial service was being held, one of them holding a portrait of Chirac 

Former Valery Giscard d'Estaing (centre), who is 93, arrives at the funeral today alongside Qatar's emir Sheikh Tamim bin Hamad Al-Thani, second right, and Prince Albert of Monaco, right

Former Valery Giscard d'Estaing (centre), who is 93, arrives at the funeral today alongside Qatar's emir Sheikh Tamim bin Hamad Al-Thani, second right, and Prince Albert of Monaco, right

Former Valery Giscard d’Estaing (centre), who is 93, arrives at the funeral today alongside Qatar’s emir Sheikh Tamim bin Hamad Al-Thani, second right, and Prince Albert of Monaco, right

Claude Chirac, the daughter of France's former President Jacques Chirac (right), and her step-daughter Esther Salat-Baroux (left) arrive to attend a church service for former president Chirax at the Saint-Sulpice church

Claude Chirac, the daughter of France's former President Jacques Chirac (right), and her step-daughter Esther Salat-Baroux (left) arrive to attend a church service for former president Chirax at the Saint-Sulpice church

Claude Chirac, the daughter of France’s former President Jacques Chirac (right), and her step-daughter Esther Salat-Baroux (left) arrive to attend a church service for former president Chirax at the Saint-Sulpice church 

Standing outside the Invalides, Nathalie Kabongo, whose husband worked on Chirac’s 1995 and 2002 campaigns, said Chirac reminded her of ‘a politics closer to the people.’

‘Apart from being president, he was a man (…), a warm man, a man close to people, smiling and with a heart,’ she said. ‘We need that sometimes.’

Those assembled took pictures, shed tears and held signs reading ‘Thank you for saying no to the war in Iraq’ as they watched the flag-draped coffin onscreen. 

A poll in Le Journal du Dimanche newspaper showed that the French consider Chirac their best president of the modern era, alongside Charles de Gaulle. 

The tributes will continue into Wednesday, when the France rugby team will don black armbands in a sign of mourning for Chirac during their World Cup clash with the United States. 

A private family church service for Chirac was celebrated prior to the military tribute and a private funeral was taking place later at the Montparnasse cemetery in southern Paris. 

Chirac will be buried next to his daughter Laurence who died in 2016 aged 58 following a battle with anorexia.   

The coffin is carried outside, escorted by French clergymen, after the end of the memorial service in Paris on Monday

The coffin is carried outside, escorted by French clergymen, after the end of the memorial service in Paris on Monday

The coffin is carried outside, escorted by French clergymen, after the end of the memorial service in Paris on Monday

Mourners look on as the coffin is carried out of the Saint-Sulpice church following Monday's memorial service for Chirac

Mourners look on as the coffin is carried out of the Saint-Sulpice church following Monday's memorial service for Chirac

Mourners look on as the coffin is carried out of the Saint-Sulpice church following Monday’s memorial service for Chirac 

Pall-bearers place the coffin in a hearse in front of the church as it leaves for its final, private family burial today

Pall-bearers place the coffin in a hearse in front of the church as it leaves for its final, private family burial today

Pall-bearers place the coffin in a hearse in front of the church as it leaves for its final, private family burial today

A crowd of Parisians gathers outside the church where the memorial service for Jacques Chirac was being held this morning

A crowd of Parisians gathers outside the church where the memorial service for Jacques Chirac was being held this morning

A crowd of Parisians gathers outside the church where the memorial service for Jacques Chirac was being held this morning

French TV host Patrick Sebastien (right) and his wife Nathalie Boutot arrive for the memorial service in Paris on Monday

French TV host Patrick Sebastien (right) and his wife Nathalie Boutot arrive for the memorial service in Paris on Monday

French TV host Patrick Sebastien (right) and his wife Nathalie Boutot arrive for the memorial service in Paris on Monday

Brigitte and Emmanuel Macron are welcomed at the entrance to the church, which is standing in for Notre Dame cathedral

Brigitte and Emmanuel Macron are welcomed at the entrance to the church, which is standing in for Notre Dame cathedral

Brigitte and Emmanuel Macron are welcomed at the entrance to the church, which is standing in for Notre Dame cathedral

Lionel Jospin, who was defeated by Chirac for the French presidency in 1995 and 2002 and was later one of his Prime Ministers, arrives at the church today

Lionel Jospin, who was defeated by Chirac for the French presidency in 1995 and 2002 and was later one of his Prime Ministers, arrives at the church today

Germany's ceremonial head of state Frank-Walter Steinmeier

Germany's ceremonial head of state Frank-Walter Steinmeier

Lionel Jospin (left), who was defeated by Chirac for the French presidency in 1995 and 2002 and was later one of his Prime Ministers, and Germany’s ceremonial head of state Frank-Walter Steinmeier (right), arrive at the church today

The hearse transporting Chirac's coffin leaves the Invalides for the Saint Sulpice church for the funeral service

The hearse transporting Chirac's coffin leaves the Invalides for the Saint Sulpice church for the funeral service

The hearse transporting Chirac’s coffin leaves the Invalides for the Saint Sulpice church for the funeral service

French journalist Valerie Trierweiler, a former partner of ex-President Francois Hollande, arrives to attend the church service

French journalist Valerie Trierweiler, a former partner of ex-President Francois Hollande, arrives to attend the church service

French journalist Valerie Trierweiler, a former partner of ex-President Francois Hollande, arrives to attend the church service

Guests face the altar with Chirac's coffin in front of them, with Emmanuel and Brigitte Macron in the front row on the right

Guests face the altar with Chirac's coffin in front of them, with Emmanuel and Brigitte Macron in the front row on the right

Guests face the altar with Chirac’s coffin in front of them, with Emmanuel and Brigitte Macron in the front row on the right

Alain Juppe, who was Prime Minister for two years under Chirac in the 1990s, arrives at the church with his wife Isabelle

Alain Juppe, who was Prime Minister for two years under Chirac in the 1990s, arrives at the church with his wife Isabelle

Alain Juppe, who was Prime Minister for two years under Chirac in the 1990s, arrives at the church with his wife Isabelle

Honour guards carry the flag-draped coffin of Jacques Chirac during a military ceremony near the site of Napoleon's tomb

Honour guards carry the flag-draped coffin of Jacques Chirac during a military ceremony near the site of Napoleon's tomb

Honour guards carry the flag-draped coffin of Jacques Chirac during a military ceremony near the site of Napoleon’s tomb

President Macron follows French Republican guards as they carry the coffin through the courtyard at Les Invalides

President Macron follows French Republican guards as they carry the coffin through the courtyard at Les Invalides

President Macron follows French Republican guards as they carry the coffin through the courtyard at Les Invalides